Forest conversion

Forest conversion

Thoughts on the ideal form of silviculture have changed fundamentally within a few decades. The conversion of forest stands aims at a quick shift in the composition of tree species and age distribution aiming to be closer to nature.

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Non-native tree species

For conversion forest stands because of climate change non-native species are also considered on top of the site appropriate native tree species. They present a good alternative, especially on sites where native species can hardly be utilized. (1)
Foreign tree species

Some euphorically endorse non-native tree species while others demonize them. Where in lies the truth? In Europe many foreign tree species have been established for a long time. Is that good or bad? Can all the tree species be lumped together?

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Underplanting of beech beneath spruce: Canopy management and harvesting regime

As a summary, the shade tolerance in seedlings is maintained by leaf orientation, morphological plasticity, low leaf construction costs, and expansion of the leaf area. As a prerequisite, species-adequate nutrient supply has to be assured.

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Underplanting of beech unter spruce – site preparation and plant type

For the introduction of broadleaves under Norway spruce canopy a pathway has to be chosen from a variety of preparative measures, regeneration techniques and plant distribution patterns which are discussed in part 2.

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Underplanting of beech beneath spruce: Selection of sites

It has been estimated that at least 6 to 7 million hectares of pure Norway spruce (Picea abies) in Europe is located outside its natural range. For economical and environmental reasons, restoration of the former mixed broadleaved forests is believed to be a step towards sustainable forestry.

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Heading image: Gero Brehm