|Originalartikel:||Kaulfuß Susanne (2012): Maßnahmen gegen Schadinsekten. http://www.waldwissen.net, 29.05.2012.|
|Autor(en):||Susanne Kaulfuß (Translation: Cameron Dron)|
|Insect Pest Handbook|
In the monitoring of forests, it has been found that certain insect species become a problem through large-scale or regional propagation; thus, appropriate measures to protect the forest are taken. There is also the "poisonous stick" which is always a last resort.
Much more should be done through the application of methods of integrated forest protection and the minimal application of agricultural pesticides. Within the parameters of many forest laws and other regulations, for example the near-natural or natural forest management, or even certification guidelines, primarily chemical treatments are not normally used. For example special bark beetles help to achieve a faster and more efficient cull and removal of diseased trees. Should the above not be possible, then it is possible to remove the bark from fallen trees so that the bark beetles cannot lay their eggs there.
Founding principles of integrated forest protection
In the monitoring framework it can be established that the natural opponents of insect pests, for example, Tachinid flies develop quickly and able to intervene in the sense that the defence measures of insect pests can be entirely disregarded, if need be.
If these non-chemical measures are not possible or, as the case may be, successful and the threat potential still exists, then after careful appraisal processes, pesticides, in accordance with the code of integrated forest & plant protection, can also be used.
The intensity of the monitoring is related to the particular gradation of a single insect species. The effort of monitoring is increased from the latent phase to over the progradation phase to the end of the gradation. Defence measures can then be used at a local or a regional level, should the situation call for it.
|Fig. 1: Pine Looper grub||
and adult male. (Photos: Möller)
A defence measure against an existing threat posed by Feeding Moth Caterpillars and in particular, so-called Pine Tree Pests (Pine Tree Lappets, The Pine Looper, The Nun Moth, The Pine Beauty and Conifer Sawflies) and also by The Oak Processionary, is the reasonable application of aerial insecticides
For an appropriate defence measure there are a multitude of legal and functional interests to observe. In forestry, licensed instruments may only be used in accordance with the plant protection laws and Ordinance on Plant Protection (Austria).
The actual licensed pesticides are published on the internet. Information for Germany and Austria can be found under 'Downloads' and 'Links'.
A close cooperation of forest, planet protection, nature protection, health and water protection authorities with the inclusion of forest managers with a commitment to plant protection tools is indispensible. The corresponding provisions to particular dosage and application of particular tools must be observed carefully when applying them. Below, you can find links to articles, where information for defence against different pests in the most important forest tree species is included.
Ash trees are generally little more threatened by insects. Increasingly, however, ash tree death has come into focus for forest owners. Therefore, we provide here some information about the situation.