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Competence Network Climate Change, Risk Management and Transformation in Forest Ecosystems

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Forest Research Institut Baden-Württemberg (FVA)
Department of forest economics

Wonnhaldestr. 4
D-79100 Freiburg

Tel:  +49 761 4018 231
Fax: +49 761 4018 333

Article

Author(s): Susanne Kaulfuß (Translation: Cameron Dron)
Editorial office: FVA, Germany
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Measures against insect pests

Insect Pest Handbook
"Forest Crisis Management" Advisory Guide

In the monitoring of forests, it has been found that certain insect species become a problem through large-scale or regional propagation; thus, appropriate measures to protect the forest are taken. There is also the "poisonous stick" which is always a last resort.

Much more should be done through the application of methods of integrated forest protection and the minimal application of agricultural pesticides. Within the parameters of many forest laws and other regulations, for example the near-natural or natural forest management, or even certification guidelines, primarily chemical treatments are not normally used. For example special bark beetles help to achieve a faster and more efficient cull and removal of diseased trees. Should the above not be possible, then it is possible to remove the bark from fallen trees so that the bark beetles cannot lay their eggs there.

Founding principles of integrated forest protection
  • Focus on prevention
  • Combination of silvicultural, biological, mechanical/technical and chemical measures.
  • Utilization of all ecological impacts
  • Reduction of pesticide demand to a minimum amount through the exploitation of all non-chemical methods.

In the monitoring framework it can be established that the natural opponents of insect pests, for example, Tachinid flies develop quickly and able to intervene in the sense that the defence measures of insect pests can be entirely disregarded, if need be.

If these non-chemical measures are not possible or, as the case may be, successful and the threat potential still exists, then after careful appraisal processes, pesticides, in accordance with the code of integrated forest & plant protection, can also be used.

The intensity of the monitoring is related to the particular gradation of a single insect species. The effort of monitoring is increased from the latent phase to over the progradation phase to the end of the gradation. Defence measures can then be used at a local or a regional level, should the situation call for it.

Kiefernspinner Kiefernspinner-Männchen
Fig. 1: Pine Looper grub

and adult male. (Photos: Möller)

A defence measure against an existing threat posed by Feeding Moth Caterpillars and in particular, so-called Pine Tree Pests (Pine Tree Lappets, The Pine Looper, The Nun Moth, The Pine Beauty and Conifer Sawflies) and also by The Oak Processionary, is the reasonable application of aerial insecticides

For an appropriate defence measure there are a multitude of legal and functional interests to observe. In forestry, licensed instruments may only be used in accordance with the plant protection laws and Ordinance on Plant Protection (Austria).

The actual licensed pesticides are published on the internet. Information for Germany and Austria can be found under 'Downloads' and 'Links'.

A close cooperation of forest, planet protection, nature protection, health and water protection authorities with the inclusion of forest managers with a commitment to plant protection tools is indispensible. The corresponding provisions to particular dosage and application of particular tools must be observed carefully when applying them. Below, you can find links to articles, where information for defence against different pests in the most important forest tree species is included.

Insecticides

Integrated Forest Protection

Insects of Deciduous and Coniferous Trees

Insects of Spruce and Fir Trees

Insects of Pine, Larch and Douglas Fir Trees

Insects of Oak Trees

Insects of Beech Trees

Insects of Ash Trees

Ash trees are generally little more threatened by insects. Increasingly, however, ash tree death has come into focus for forest owners. Therefore, we provide here some information about the situation.

Insects of other Hardwood Trees

Insects of Maple Trees
Insects of Elm Trees