||Odenthal-Kahabka, J. (2005): Handreichung Sturmschadensbewältigung. Hrsg. Landesforstverwaltung Baden-Württemberg und Landesforsten Rheinland-Pfalz.
Alternative Trucks for Timber Haulage
Experience following the storms "Wiebke" and "Vivian"
in 1990 as well as "Lothar" in 1999 showed that timber transport capacity is a
In particular transporting timber to customers (long and short distance
transport), to wet storages or to yards and ports concurrently is determined to
a great extent by the available transport capacity.
Timber haulage from forest to the point of delivery is
traditionally carried out by specialised timber transport vehicles (log trucks
with handling equipment, semi-trailers and shortwood trucks), in normal times
as well as in times of catastrophe.
Advantages of these specialised trucks
are their rugged construction and their independent, flexible application at
the forest due to their vehicle-mounted cranes. Disadvantages such as higher
net weight (rugged construction and specialised equipment) however, lead to
reduced load capacity in comparison to conventional trucks. Furthermore it’s
only possible to transport round timber by these trucks which have high
purchase costs and low resale values.
Because the timber trucks can only be used for timber
haulage and not for any other goods, the problem of empty trucks on return
arises. Additionally in times of catastrophe the availability of trucks becomes
Even for rail and waterway transportation modes, the first leg of the journey
out of the forest normally needs to be by truck. Especially in times of
catastrophes, but also in regular times, it is useful to have access to trucks
with flexible trailer or container systems which are not especially equipped
for round timber haulage.
Some solutions exist, which seem to be reasonable for
timber haulage (in combination with ship and railway transportation).
Widespread utilisation of such systems is not common (except the: "Trailersystem" in Bavaria and "VALMETrailer" in Saarland),
even though the conditions of haulage (eco-taxes, fuel prices, truck toll etc.)
make a more efficient use of transport media desirable.
The following scheme provides an overview of current systems.
Container with rollers
DIN 30722 (Abroll-container)
- Suitable for haulage of loose, bulk
- Transported by a container vehicle,
which is equipped with a hook system.
- Flexible due to the rolls fixed to
- Widespread, DIN-standardised system,
compatible throughout Europe
- Disadvantages: The hook equipment increases the price by about 20.000 €
and the net weight considerably.
Swap body DIN 284
- Transported by vehicles equipped
with a special frame according to DIN 70014
- Low net weight of the base vehicles
- Widespread, DIN-standardised system,
compatible throughout Europe
- Combination with railway possible
- Swap bodies are set on four
supporting legs, which are folded during driving.
- Equipment for a corresponding frame
at 2.600 € is cost-efficient.
- Equipped with stakes for haulage of pipe-like goods.
Photo: Wippermann, D. in
Strunk, M. (2003)
- Container with an open stake
construction from Georg Kraemer KG (Germany) especially for timber
haulage; combines the systems named above. The container is equipped with
supporting legs (foldable) as well as a hook system.
- High effort needed for organisation,
coordination and communication between forest ranger, contractor and haulage
- Flexible application of haulage trucks, Euroflats can be used for
haulage of sawn wood.
Photo: Factory photo FA. G.
Kraemer in Strunk, M. (2003)
- Advanced, partly closed version of
- This swap body can be used as a closed container for haulage of pieces
or bulked goods (wood chips). An additional panel closes the open parts.
Direct loading of
Photo: Hecker, M. in Strunk, M. (2003)
- Due to direct loading from the
forwarder to the semi-trailer the interim storage in the forest is omitted.
- Working with a minimum of 2
semi-trailers allows for the continuous transport of timber out of the forest.
- The disadvantage of the system is
the necessary infrastructure required: forestry roads need to be wide enough
and stable enough to make loading from the forwarder to the semi-trailer
- Furthermore this system is only
profitable at large timber quantities, when there is a lack of storage space or
for “just-in-time” deliveries.
- Lower purchase costs in comparison to a traditional timber truck as well
as savings on motor vehicle
taxes. Taxes need to be paid for the towing vehicle and for one semi-trailer.
There are no additional taxes for any further semi-trailers. These trucks can
also be used for transportation of other goods.
Further timber haulage
systems, which are not especially developed for roundwood haulage but which may
Factory photo Fa. Krampe
in Strunk, M. (2003)
- The tandem-hooklift-trailer can be
hauled by trucks with trailer couplings as well as by agricultural tractors or
Unimogs. This makes the system of container transport attractive for forest
owners, forestry partnerships or machine rings (machine sharing).
- The transportation of own timber to
the user or to collection points is no problem and can be done by the forest
owner him/herself without the need for a contractor.
- Trailer costs: 25,000 - 30,000 € (Fa. Krampe, Coesfeld /Germany).
Stackable swap bodies
Photo: Zapp, H. in Strunk,
- Special variation of swap bodies.
The stakes, front, back and side panels can be folded. The flat bodies can be piled
up on each other and stored or transported in a space-saving way. The
manufacturer suggests the system can be used for timber haulage even though it
was not designed for it.
- The swap bodies are approved for
transport by railway – costs approx. 4,900 € (company CombiLog AG,
- Disadvantages: no combination with Abroll-containers, supporting legs
are necessary for putting down the swap bodies (consider bearing capacity of
forest soil at loaded state), a truck is necessary
Photo: Factory photo Fa.
Tuchschmid AG in Strunk, M. (2003)
- The system enables the combined transport
of Abroll-containers via truck and train. Therefore the wagons are equipped
with special, rotating frames.
- It is especially useful for the
railway haulage of raw wood without single stem reloading and special timber
transhipment devices. A special timber loading yard is not needed.
- Swap body based on
international (sea freight-) containers, especially suitable for transport of
pipes or pipe-like goods
- Bechtle, M. und Müller, M: (2004):
Optimierung der Logistik durch Trailer-Direktverladung. Holzzentralblatt Nr.
46/2004, S. 603-604.
- Strunk, M. (2003): Zum Einsatz von
Wechselbrücken beim Rohholztransport in der deutschen Forst- und
Holzwirtschaft. Bachelorarbeit Universität Göttingen, unveröffentlicht.
- Von Bodelschwingh, E. (2004): Das System VALMETRailer. Forst und Technik,
6/2004, S. 14-18.