Forest Research Institut Baden-Württemberg (FVA)
Department of forest economics
Tel: +49 761 4018 231
Fax: +49 761 4018 333
A less used transport medium is the ship. Through "Lothar" and the need for long distance timber transportation, Baden-Wuerttemberg started to ship considerable amounts of storm timber. Timber haulage via ship is favourable in comparison with other long distance transportation. Haulage by ship is only profitable for distances greater than 500 km (transport including pre-carriage-charges and turnover approx. 19 €/m³). Therefore this organisational time-consuming option was only used for long distance transports.
|At the quay....||
||...and at interim storage. Photos: R. Willmann|
If haulage via ship is agreed by a supply contract, the following points of delivery for timber can be arranged.
Point of delivery
Point of delivery
|frei Verladekai||FAS||Free Alongside Ship|
|frei Schiff verladen im Abgangshafen||FOB||Free On Board|
|frei Ankunftshafen||CFR||Cost and Freight|
|frei Ankunftshafen einschl. Entladekosten||DES||Delivered Ex Ship|
|frei Kai Ankunftshafen||DEQ||Delivered Ex Quay|
|frei Werk||Free Factory|
It is recommended to agree on "FAS" or max. "FOB" as the point of delivery. At these points a local coordinator of the timber supplier can interact.
Additional details needed to settle a supply contract include:
For the seller haulage by ship is only profitable if large amounts of timber are shipped. Timber comes from different forest offices/ enterprises and different forest owners respectively. To coordinate the supply it is advisable to name one on site (forest) coordinator for all operations.
A detailed delivery schedule is helpful for all parties This schedule should be issued by the coordinator in cooperation with the supplying forest offices/ enterprises. It details the order and appointments of assortment supply and is binding on the supplying forest offices.
The coordinator engages a haulage company for pre-carriage (tendering of haulage) 2-3 weeks in advance of the beginning of carriage. Details which must be agreed in the contract are:
Depending on the size of the shipping space the delivery of timber should start a least one week before scheduled departure. This guarantees the complete supply of timber at port in time. If insufficient amounts are supplied, costs for dead freight arise.
Ships can not be loaded directly from a truck in less than 1-2 days. If there is not enough available area at the quay, an appropriate interim storage to collect the timber needs to be arranged.
At an early stage the coordinator clarifies the conditions of quay utilisation with the owner (e.g. port management) and “acquires” the right of use.
The loading can’t be carried out directly from the truck. It has to be arranged separately (mobile loading, fixed loading with gantry crane). Details to arrange are:
If shipping space is offered by shipping companies, loading and unloading may be offered at the same time. After delivering timber to the quay the subsequent process is organised by the shipping company. Generally loading is carried out by the port operating company. It is possible to sign a separate contract with them directly.
The coordinator signs the shipping space no later than 10 working days (= requirement of shipping companies) in advance of the scheduled loading commencement. Details agreed in the freight contract are:
If large amounts of timber are to be shipped over a long period, it is best to arrange special conditions with the shipping company. Such arrangements include one ship per week or one ship per month. The shipping company is able to plan their ships ahead of time. They can also guarantee to provide ships on time. Problems are experienced more often with irregular bookings.
Supply contracts should include “Free on Board” as point of delivery. The unloading and particularly the after-carriage is then organised and arranged by the customer.
The freight document, respectively the calibration journal, specifying the tonnage must be adjusted to the measurement journals from the sawmills.